Chapter 10: The Emergence of the Ectoderm: Central Nervous System and Epidermis

Where possible, references have been linked to PubMed, the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s online database of journal article citations. Citations that do not include links to PubMed are either referring to papers that are too old to be included in PubMed, or to books, which are not listed on PubMed.

Aguirre, A., M. E. Rubio and V. Gallo. 2010. Notch and EGFR pathway interaction regulates neural stem cell number and self-renewal. Nature 467: 323­–327.
PubMed Link

Alder, J., K. J. Lee, T. M. Jessell and M. E. Hatten. 1999. Generation of cerebellar granule neurons in vivo by transplantation of BMP-treated neural progenitor cells. Nature Neurosci.
PubMed Link 2: 535–540.

Alvarez, I. S. and G. C. Schoenwolf. 1992. Expansion of surface epithelium provides the major extrinsic force for bending of the neural plate. J. Exp. Zool. 261: 340–348.
PubMed Link

Anderson, D. D., C. F. Woeller, E. P. Chiang, B. Shane and P. J. Stover. 2012. Serine hydroxymethyltransferase anchors de novo thymidylate synthesis pathway to nuclear lamina for DNA synthesis. J. Biol. Chem. 287: 7051–7062.
PubMed Link

Andl, T., S. T. Reddy, T. Gaddapara and S. E. Millar. 2002. WNT signals are required for the initiation of hair follicle development. Dev. Cell 2: 643–653.
PubMed Link

Archer, T. C., J. Jin and E. S. Casey. 2011. Interaction of Sox1, Sox2, Sox3 and Oct4 during primary neurogenesis. Dev. Biol. 350: 429–40.
PubMed Link

Bailey, T. J., H. El-Hodiri, L. Zhang, R. Shah, P. H. Mathers and M. Jamrich. 2004. Regulation of vertebrate eye development by Rx genes. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 48: 761–770.
PubMed Link

Baird, A. A. and 7 others. 1999. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of facial affect recognition in children and adolescents. J. Am. Acad. Child Adolesc. Psychiatr. 38: 195–199.
PubMed Link

Bakkers, J., M. Hild, C. Kramer, M. Furutani-Seiki and M. Hammerschmidt. 2002. Zebrafish DeltaNp63 is a direct target of BMP signaling and encodes a transcriptional repressor blocking neural specification in the ventral ectoderm. Dev. Cell 2: 617–627.
PubMed Link

Balaskas, N. and 7 others. 2012. Gene regulatory logic for reading the Sonic Hedgehog signaling gradient in the vertebrate neural tube. Cell 148: 273–284.
PubMed Link

Balinsky, B. I. 1975. Introduction to Embryology, 4th Ed. Saunders, Philadelphia.

Barinaga, M. 2003. Newborn neurons search for meaning. Science 299: 32–34.
PubMed Link

Bassuk, A. G. and Z. Kibar. 2009. Genetic basis of neural tube defects. Semin. Pediatr. Neurol. 16: 101–110.
PubMed Link

Bazzi, H., K. A. Fantauzzo, G. D. Richardson, C. A. Jahoda and A. M. Christiano. 2007. The Wnt inhibitor, Dickkopf 4, is induced by canonical Wnt signaling during ectodermal appendage morphogenesis. Dev. Biol. 305: 498–507.
PubMed Link

Beazley, K. E., J. P. Canner and T. F. Linsenmayer. 2009. Developmental regulation of the nuclear ferritoid-ferritin complex of avian corneal epithelial cells: roles of systemic factors and thyroxine. Exp. Eye Res. 89854–8962.
PubMed Link

Blanpain, C. and E. Fuchs. 2009. Epidermal homeostasis: A balancing act of stem cells in the skin. Nature Rev. Mol. Cell Biol. 10: 207–217.
PubMed Link

Blanpain, C., V. Horsley and E. Fuchs. 2007. Epithelial stem cells: Turning over new leaves. Cell 128: 445–458.
PubMed Link

Bogin, B. 1997. Evolutionary hypotheses for human childhood. Yrbk. Phys. Anthropol. 40: 63–89.

Bonaguidi, M. A. and 6 others. 2011. In vivo clonal analysis reveals self-renewing and multipotent adult neural stem cell characteristics. Cell 145: 1142–1155.
PubMed Link

Briscoe, J., L. Sussel, P. Serup, D. Hartigan-O’Connor, T. M. Jessell, J. L. R. Rubenstein and J. Ericson. 1999. Homeobox gene Nkx2.2 and specification of neuronal identity by graded Sonic hedgehog signaling. Nature 398: 622–627.
PubMed Link

Brown, K. E. and 6 others. 2010. Nlcam modulates midline convergence during anterior neural plate morphogenesis. Dev. Biol. 339: 14–25.
PubMed Link

Bultje, R. S., D. R. Castaneda-Castellanos, L. Y. Jan, Y. N. Jan, A. R. Kriegstein and S. H. Shi. 2009. Mammalian Par3 regulates progenitor cell asymmetric division via notch signaling in the developing neocortex. Neuron. 63: 189–202.
PubMed Link

Burmeister, M. and 13 others. 1996. Ocular retardation mouse caused by Chx10 homeobox null allele: Impaired retinal progenitor proliferation and bipolar cell differentiation.  Nature Genetics 12: 376–384.
PubMed Link

Cambray, N. and V. Wilson. 2007. Two distinct sources for a population of maturing axial progenitors. Development 134: 2829–2840.
PubMed Link

Catala, M., M.-A. Teillet and N. M. Le Douarin. 1995. Organization and development of the tailbud analyzed with the quail-chick chimaera system. Mech. Dev. 51: 51–65.
PubMed Link

Catala, M., M.-A. Teillet, E. M. De Robertis and N. M. Le Douarin. 1996. A spinal cord fate map in the avian embryo: While regressing, Hensen’s node lays down the notochord and floor plate thus joining the spinal cord lateral walls. Development 122: 2599–2610.
PubMed Link

Centers for Disease Control. 1992. Recommendations for the use of folic acid to reduce the number of cases of spina bifida and other neural tube defects. Morb. Mortal. Wkly. Rep. 41: 1–7.
PubMed Link

Chapman, D. L. and V. E. Papaioannou. 1998. Three neural tubes in mouse embryos with mutations in the T-box gene Tbx6. Nature 391: 695–697.
PubMed Link

Charrier, C. and 10 others. 2012. Inhibition of SRGAP2 function by its human-specific paralogs induces neoteny during spine maturation. Cell 149: 923–935.
PubMed Link

Chauhan, B. K. and 8 others. 2009. Cdc42- and IRSp53-dependent contractile filopodia tether presumptive lens and retina to coordinate epithelial invagination. Development 136: 3657–3667.
PubMed Link

Chauhan, B. K., M. Lou, Y. Zheng and R. A. Lang. 2011. Balanced Rac1 and RhoA activities regulate cell shape and drive invagination morphogenesis in epithelia. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 108: 18289–18294.
PubMed Link

Chenn, A. and S. K. McConnell. 1995. Cleavage orientation and the asymmetric inheritance of Notch1 immunoreactivity in mammalian neurogenesis. Cell 82: 631–641.
PubMed Link

Chiang, C., Y. Litingung, E. Lee, K. E. Young, J. L. Corden, H. Westphal and P. A. Beachy. 1996. Cyclopia and defective axial patterning in mice lacking sonic hedgehog gene function. Nature 383: 407–413.
PubMed Link

Chou, S.-J., C. G. Perez-Garcia, T. T. Kroll and D. D. M. O’Leary. 2009. Lhx2 specifies regional fate in Emx1 lineage of telencephalic progenitors generating cerebral cortex. Nature Neurosci. 12: 1381–1389.
PubMed Link

Clayton, E., D. P. Doupé, A. M. Klein, D. J. Winton, B. D. Simons and P. H. Jones. 2007. A single type of progenitor cell maintains normal epidermis. Nature 446: 185–189.
PubMed Link

Cooper, M. K., J. A. Porter, K. E. Young and P. A. Beachy. 1998. Teratogen-mediated inhibition of target tissue response to Shh signaling. Science 280: 1603–1607.
PubMed Link

Cotsarelis, G., S. Z. Cheng, G. Dong, T. T. Sun and R. M. Lavker. 1989. Existence of slow-cycling limbal epithelial basal cells that can be preferentially stimulated to proliferate: Implications on epithelial stem cells. Cell 57: 201–209.
PubMed Link

Cotsarelis, G., T.-T. Sun and R. M. Lavker. 1990. Label-retaining cells reside in the bulge area of pilosebaceous unit: Implications for follicular stem cells, hair cycle and skin carcinogenesis. Cell 61: 1329–1337.
PubMed Link

Coulombre, A. J. 1956. The role of intraocular pressure in the development of the chick eye. I. Control of eye size. J. Exp. Zool. 133: 211–225.

Coulombre, A. J. 1965. The eye. In R. DeHaan and H. Ursprung (eds.), Organogenesis. Holt, Rinehart & Winston, New York, pp. 217–251.

Cvekl, A. and E. R. Tamm. 2004. Anterior eye development and ocular mesenchyme: New insights from mouse models and human diseases. BioEssays 26: 374–386.
PubMed Link

Czeizel, A. E. and I. Dudás. 1992. Prevention of first occurrence of neural tube defects by periconceptional vitamin supplementation. N. Engl. J. Med. 327: 1832–1835.
PubMed Link

Davenport, R. W., P. Dou, V. Rehder and S. B. Kater. 1993. A sensory role for neuronal growth cone filopodia. Nature 361: 721–724.
PubMed Link

Decembrini, S. and 9 others. 2009. MiRNAs couple cell fate and developmental timing in retinal histogenesis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106: 21179–21184.

Decembrini, S. and 9 others. 2010. MicroRNAs couple cell fate and developmental timing in retina. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 106: 21179–21184.
PubMed Link

Decembrini, S., M. Andreazzoli, R. Vignali, G. Barsacchi and F. Cremisi. 2006. Timing the generation of distinct retinal cells by homeobox proteins. PLoS Biol. 4: e272.
PubMed Link

Dennis, M. Y. and 15 others. 2012. Evolution of human-specific neural SRGAP2 genes by incomplete segmental duplication. Cell 149: 912–922.
PubMed Link

Desmond, M. E. 1982. A description of the occlusion of the lumen of the spinal cord in early human embryos. Anat. Rec. 204: 89–93.
PubMed Link

Desmond, M. E. and G. C. Schoenwolf. 1986. Evaluation of the roles of intrinsic and extrinsic factors in occlusion of the spinal neurocoel during rapid brain enlargement in the chick embryo. J. Embryol. Exp. Morphol. 97: 25–46.
PubMed Link

Desmond, M. E. and M. L. Levitan. 2002. Brain expansion in the chick embryo initiated by experimentally produced occlusion of the spinal neurocoel. Anat. Rec. 268: 147–159.
PubMed Link

Detrick, R. J., D. Dickey and C. R. Kintner. 1990. The effects of N-cadherin misexpression on morphogenesis in Xenopus embryos. Neuron 4: 493–506.
PubMed Link

Donner, A. L., S. A. Lachke and R. L. Maas. 2006. Lens induction in vertebrates: Variations on a conserved theme of signaling events. Semin. Cell Dev. Biol. 17: 676–685.
PubMed Link

Dosenbach, N. U. and 17 others. 2010. Prediction of individual brain maturity using fMRI. Science 329:1358–1361.
PubMed Link

Duverger, O. and M. I. Morasso. 2009. Epidermal patterning and induction of different hair types during mouse embryonic development. Birth Def. Res. C Embryo Today 87: 263–272.
PubMed Link

Echelard, Y., D. J. Epstein, B. St.-Jacques, L. Shen, J. Mohler, J. A. McMahon and A. McMahon. 1993. Sonic hedgehog, a member of a family of putative signaling molecules, is implicated in the regulation of CNS polarity. Cell 75: 1417–1430.
PubMed Link

Edmondson, J. C., R. K. H. Liem, J. E. Kuster and M. E. Hatten. 1988. Astrotactin: A novel neuronal cell surface antigen that mediates neuronal-astroglial interactions in cerebellar microcultures. J. Cell Biol. 106: 505–517.
PubMed Link

Eiraku, M. and 8 others. Self-organizing optic-cup morphogenesis in three-dimensional culture. Nature 472: 51–56.
PubMed Link

Emery, B. 2010. Regulation of oligodendrocyte differentiation and myelination. Science 330: 779–782.
PubMed Link

Enard, W. and 12 others. 2002a. Intra- and interspecific variation in primate gene expression patterns. Science 296: 340–343.
PubMed Link

Enard, W. and 7 others. 2002b. Molecular evolution of FOXP2, a gene involved in speech and language. Nature 418: 869–872.
PubMed Link

Erikksson, P. S., E. Perfiliea, T. Björn-Erikksson, A.-M. Alborn, C. Nordberg, D. A. Peterson and F. H. Gage. 1998. Neurogenesis in the adult human hippocampus. Nature Med. 4: 1313–1317.
PubMed Link

Ezratty, E. J., N. Stokes, S. Chai, A. S. Shah, S. E. Williams and E. Fuchs. 2011. A role for the primary cilium in Notch signaling and epidermal differentiation during skin development. Cell 145: 1129–1141.
PubMed Link

Famulski, J. K. and 6 others. 2010. Siah regulation of Pard3A controls neuronal cell adhesion during germinal zone exit. Science 330:1834–1838.
PubMed Link

Fishell, G. and M. E. Hatten. 1991. Astrotactin provides a receptor system for CNS neuronal migration. Development 113: 755–765.
PubMed Link

Fliniaux, I., M. L. Mikkola, S. Lefebvre and I. Thesleff. 2008. Identification of dkk4 as a target of Eda-A1/Edar pathway reveals an unexpected role of ectodysplasin as inhibitor of Wnt signalling in ectodermal placodes. Dev. Biol. 320: 60–71.
PubMed Link

Fliniaux, I., M. L. Mikkola, S. Lefebvre and I. Thesleff. 2008. Identification of dkk4 as a target of Eda-A1/Edar pathway reveals an unexpected role of ectodysplasin as inhibitor of Wnt signalling in ectodermal placodes. Dev. Biol. 320: 60–71.
PubMed Link

Forscher, P. and S. J. Smith. 1988. Actions of cytochalasins on the organization of actin filaments and microtubules in a neural growth cone. J. Cell Biol. 107: 1505–1516.
PubMed Link

Fournier-Thibault, C., C. Blavet, A. Jarov, F. Bajanca, S. Thorsteinsdóttir and J. L. Duband. 2009. Sonic hedgehog regulates integrin activity, cadherin contacts, and cell polarity to orchestrate neural tube morphogenesis. J. Neurosci. 29: 12506–12520.
PubMed Link

Frantz, G. D. and S. K. McConnell. 1996. Restriction of late cerebral cortical progenitors to an upper-layer fate. Neuron 17: 55–61.
PubMed Link

Frantz, G. D., J. M. Weimann, M. E. Levin and S. K. McConnell. 1994. Otx1 and Otx2 define layers and regions in developing cerebral cortex and cerebellum. J. Neurosci. 14: 5725–5740.
PubMed Link

Fuchs, E. and V. Horsley. 2008. More than one way to skin . . .  Genes Dev. 22: 976–985.
PubMed Link

Fuhrmann, S. 2010. Eye morphogenesis and patterning of the optic vesicle. Curr. Top. Dev. Biol. 93: 61–84.
PubMed Link

Fujimori, T., S. Miyatani and M. Takeichi. 1990. Ectopic expression of N-cadherin perturbs histogenesis in Xenopus embryos. Development 110: 97–104.
PubMed Link

Fujita, S. 1964. Analysis of neuron differentiation in the central nervous system by tritiated thymidine autoradiography. J. Comp. Neurol. 122: 311–327.
PubMed Link

Fujita, S. 1966. Application of light and electron microscopy to the study of the cytogenesis of the forebrain. In R. Hassler and H. Stephen (eds.), Evolution of the Forebrain. Plenum, New York, pp. 180–196.

Götz, M. and Y. A. Barde. 2005. Radial glial cells defined and major intermediates between embryonic stem cells and CNS neurons. Neuron 46: 369–372.
PubMed Link

Gage, P. J., W. Rhoades, S. K. Prucka and T. Hjalt. 2005. Fate maps of neural crest and mesoderm in the mammalian eye.  Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci. 46: 4200–4208.
PubMed Link

Gaiano, N. 2008. Strange bedfellows: Reelin and Notch signaling interact to regulate cell migration in the developing neocortex. Neuron 60: 189–191.
PubMed Link

Gallera, J. 1971. Primary induction in birds. Adv. Morphogenet. 9: 149–180.
PubMed Link

Garza, L. A. and 10 others. 2011. Bald scalp in men with androgenetic alopecia retains hair follicle stem cells but lacks CD200-rich and CD34-positive hair follicle progenitor cells. J. Clin. Invest. 121: 613–622.
PubMed Link

Garza, L. A. and 14 others. 2012. Prostaglandin D2 inhibits hair growth and is elevated in bald scalp of men with androgenetic alopecia. Sci. Transl. Med. 4:126ra34.
PubMed Link

Gat, U., R. DasGupta, L. Degenstein and E. Fuchs. 1998. De-novo hair follicle morphogenesis and hair tumors in mice expressing a truncated b-catenin in skin. Cell 95: 605–614.
PubMed Link

Gibbons, A. 1998. Which of our genes make us human? Science 281: 1432–1434
PubMed Link

Giedd, J. N. and 8 others. 1999. Brain development during childhood and adolescence: A longitudinal MRI study. Nature Neurosci. 2: 861–863.
PubMed Link

Glaser, T., L. Jepeal, J. G. Edwards, S. R. Young, J. Favor and R. L. Maas. 1994. PAX6 gene dosage effect in a family with congenital cataracts, aniridia, anophthalmia and central nervous system defects. Nature Genet. 7: 463–471.
PubMed Link

Gogtay, N. and 11 others. 2004. Dynamic mapping of human cortical development during childhood through early adulthood. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 101: 8174–8179.
PubMed Link

Gont, L. K., H. Steinbeisser, B. Blumberg and E. M. De Robertis. 1993. Tail formation as a continuation of gastrulation: The multiple cell populations of the Xenopus tailbud derive from the late blastopore lip. Development 119: 991–1004.
PubMed Link

Gould, S. J. 1977. Ever Since Darwin. W. W. Norton,  New York.

Gould, S. J. 1977. Ontogeny and Phylogeny. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.

Grainger, R. M. 1992. Embryonic lens induction: Shedding light on vertebrate tissue determination. Trends Genet. 8: 349–355.
PubMed Link

Guthrie, S. and A. Lumsden. 1991. Formation and regeneration of rhombomere boundaries in the developing chick hindbrain. Development 112: 221–229.
PubMed Link

Haesler, S., C. Rochefort, B. Georgi, P. Licznerski, P. Osten and C. Scharff. 2007. Incomplete and inaccurate vocal imitation after knockdown of FoxP2 in songbird basal ganglia nucleus area X. PLoS Biology 5: e321.
PubMed Link

Halder, G., P. Callaerts and W. J. Gehring. 1995. Induction of ectopic eyes by targeted expression of the eyeless gene in Drosophila. Science 267: 1788–1792.
PubMed Link

Hardy, M. H. 1992. The secret life of the hair follicle. Trends Genet. 8: 55–61.
PubMed Link

Harrington, M. J., E. Hong and R. Brewster. 2009. Comparative analysis of neurulation: First impressions do not count. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 76: 954–965.
PubMed Link

Harris, M. J. and D. M. Juriloff. 2010. An update to the list of mouse mutants with neural tube closure defects and advances toward a complete genetic perspective of neural tube closure. Birth Defects Res. A: Clin. Mol. Teratol. 88: 653–669.
PubMed Link

Harrison, R. G. 1907. Observations on the living developing nerve fiber. Anat. Rec. 1: 116–118.

Hatten, M. E. 1990. Riding the glial monorail: A common mechanism for glial-guided neuronal migration in different regions of the mammalian brain. Trends Neurosci. 13: 179–184.
PubMed Link

Henry, E. W. and R. L. Sidman. 1988. Long lives for homozygous trembler mutant mice despite virtual absence of peripheral nerve myelin. Science 241: 344–346.
PubMed Link

Hilfer, S. R. and J.-J. W. Yang. 1980. Accumulation of CPC-precipitable material at apical cell surfaces during formation of the optic cup. Anat. Rec. 197: 423–433.
PubMed Link

His, W. 1886. Zur Geschichte des mensch-lichen Rückenmarks und der Nervenwurzeln. Ges. Wiss. 13, S. 477.

Hollyday, M. 2001. Neurogenesis in the vertebrate neural tube. Int. J. Dev. Neurosci. 19: 161–173.
PubMed Link

Hsu, Y. C., H. A. Pasolli  and E. Fuchs. 2011. Dynamics between stem cells, niche, and progeny in the hair follicle. Cell 144: 92–105.
PubMed Link

Ihrie, R. A. and 7 others. 2011. Persistent Sonic hedgehog signaling in adult brain determines neural stem cell positional identity. Neuron 71: 250–262.
PubMed Link

Ihrie, R. A. and A. Alvarez-Buylla. 2011. Lake-front property: A unique germinal niche by the lateral ventricles of the adult brain. Neuron. 70: 674–686.
PubMed Link

Ishizuka, K. and 17 others. 2011. DISC1-dependent switch from progenitor proliferation to migration in the developing cortex. Nature 473: 92–96.
PubMed Link

Ito, M., Z. Yang, T. Andl, C. Cui, N. Kim, S. E. Millar and G. Cotsarelis. 2007. Wnt-dependent de novo hair follicle regeneration in adult mouse skin after wounding. Nature 447: 316–320.
PubMed Link

Jacobson, A. G. 1963. The determination and positioning of the nose, lens and ear. I. Interaction within the ectoderm and between the ectoderm and underlying tissues. J. Exp. Zool. 154: 273–284.
PubMed Link

Jacobson, A. G. 1966. Inductive processes in embryonic development. Science 152: 25–34.
PubMed Link

Jacobson, A. G. and J. G. Moury. 1995. Tissue boundaries and cell behavior during neurulation. Dev. Biol. 171: 98–110.
PubMed Link

Jacobson, M. 1968. Cessation of DNA synthesis in retinal ganglion cells correlated with the time of specification of their central connections. Dev. Biol. 17: 219–232.

Jacobson, M. 1991. Developmental Neurobiology, 2nd Ed. Plenum, New York.

Janich, P. and 9 others. 2011. The circadian molecular clock creates epidermal stem cell heterogeneity. Nature 480: 209–214.
PubMed Link

Jessell, T. M. 2000. Neuronal specification in the spinal cord: Inductive signals and transcriptional codes. Nature Rev. Genet. 1: 20–29.
PubMed Link

Jiang, T.-X. and 7 others. 2004. Integument pattern formation involves genetic and epigenetic controls: Feather arrays simulated by digital hormone models. Int. J. Dev. Biol.
PubMed Link 48: 117–136.

Johnston, M. C., D. M. Noden, R. D. Hazelton, J. L. Coulombre and A. J. Coulombre. 1979. Origins of avian ocular and periocular tissues. Exp. Eye Res. 29: 27–43.
PubMed Link

Jordan, T. and 7 others. 1992. The human PAX6 gene is mutated in two patients with aniridia. Nature Genet. 1: 328–332.
PubMed Link

Kageyama, R., T. Ohtsuka, H. Shimojo and I. Imayoshi. 2008. Dynamic Notch signaling in neural progenitor cells and a revised view of lateral inhibition. Nature Neurosci. 11:1247–1251.
PubMed Link

Kanakubo, S., T. Nomura, K. Yamamura, J. Miyazaki, M. Tamai and N. Osumi. 2006. Abnormal migration and distribution of neural crest cells in Pax6 heterozygous mutant eye, a model for human eye diseases. Genes Cells 11: 919–933.
PubMed Link

Kaufman, K. D. 2002. Androgens and alopecia. Mol. Cell Endocr. 198: 89–95.
PubMed Link

Kelley, R. L. and 7 others. 1996. Holoprosencephaly in RSH/Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome: Does abnormal cholesterol metabolism affect the function of Sonic hedgehog? Am. J. Med. Genet. 66: 478–484.
PubMed Link

Kempermann, G., H. G. Kuhn and F. H. Gage. 1997a. Genetic influence on neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus of adult mice. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 94: 10409–10414.
PubMed Link

Kempermann, G., H. G. Kuhn and F. H. Gage. 1997b. More hippocampal neurons in adult mice living in an enriched environment. Nature 386: 493–495.
PubMed Link

King, M. C. and A. C. Wilson. 1975. Evolution at two levels in humans and chimpanzees. Science 188: 107–116.
PubMed Link

Komuro, H. and P. Rakic. 1992. Selective role of N-type calcium channels in neuronal migration. Science 257: 806–809.
PubMed Link

Kondoh, H., M. Uchikawa and Y. Kamachi. 2004. Interplay of Pax6 and Sox2 in lens development as a paradigm of genetic switch mechanisms for cell differentiation. Int. J. Dev. Biol. 48: 819–827.
PubMed Link

Konopka, G. and 9 others. 2009. Human-specific transcriptional regulation of CNS development genes by FOXP2. Nature 462: 213–217.
PubMed Link

Kornack, D. R. and P. Rakic. 1999. Continuation of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of the adult macaque monkey. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 96: 5768–5773.
PubMed Link

Kurpakus, M. A., M. T. Maniaci and M. Esco. 1994. Expression of keratins K12, K4, and K14 during development of ocular surface epithelium. Curr. Eye Res. 13: 805–814.
PubMed Link

Kuwabara, T., J. Hsieh, K. Nakashima, K. Taira and F. H. Gage. 2004. A small modulatory dsRNA specifies the fate of adult neural stem cells. Cell 116: 779–793.
PubMed Link

Lai, C. S., D. Gerrelli, A. P. Monaco, S. E. Fisher and A. J. Copp. 2003. FOXP2 expression during brain development coincides with adult sites of pathology in a severe speech and language disorder. Brain 126: 2455–2462.
PubMed Link

Lai, C. S., S. E. Fisher, J. A. Hurst, F. Vargha-Khadem and A. P. Monaco. 2001. A forkhead-domain gene is mutated in a severe speech and language disorder. Nature 413: 519–523.
PubMed Link

Lambert, N. and 11 others. 2011. Genes expressed in specific areas of the human fetal cerebral cortex display distinct patterns of evolution. PLoS One 6: e17753.
PubMed Link

Lamoureux, P., R. E. Buxbaum and S. R. Heidemann. 1989. Direct evidence that growth cones pull. Nature 340: 159–162.
PubMed Link

Larsen, W. J. 1993. Human Embryology. Churchill Livingstone, New York.

Lawson, A., H. Anderson and G. C. Schoenwolf. 2001. Cellular mechanisms of neural fold formation and morphogenesis in the chick embryo. Anat. Rec. 262: 153–168.
PubMed Link

Lebel, C. and C. Beaulieu. 2011. Longitudinal development of human brain wiring continues from childhood into adulthood. J. Neurosci. 31:10937–10947.
PubMed Link

Lechler, T. and E. Fuchs. 2005. Asymmetric cell divisions promote stratification and differentiation of mammalian skin. Nature 437: 275­–280.
PubMed Link

Lee, S.-K. and S. L. Pfaff. 2001. Transcriptional networks regulating neuronal identity in the developing spinal cord. Nature Neurosci. Suppl. 4: 1183–1191.
PubMed Link

Lehtinen, M. K. and 13 others. 2011. The cerebrospinal fluid provides a proliferative niche for neural progenitor cells. Neuron. 69: 893–905.
PubMed Link

Leigh, S. R. 2004. Brain growth, life history, and cognition in primate and human evolution. Am. J. Primatol. 62: 139–164.
PubMed Link

Letourneau, P. C. 1977. Regulation of neuronal morphogenesis by cell-substratum adhesion. Soc. Neurosci. Symp. 2: 67–81.

Letourneau, P. C. 1979. Cell substratum adhesion of neurite growth cones and its role in neurite elongation. Exp. Cell Res. 124: 127–138.
PubMed Link

Levy, V., C. Lindon, Y. Zheng, B. D. Harfe and B. A. Morgan. 2007. Epidermal stem cells arise from the hair follicle after wounding. FASEB J. 21: 1358–1366.
PubMed Link

Liem, K. F., Jr, T. M. Jessell and J. Briscoe. 2000. Regulation of the neural patterning activity of Sonic hedgehog by secreted BMP inhibitors expressed by notochord and somites. Development 127: 4855–4866.
PubMed Link

Liem, K. F., Jr., G. Tremml and T. M. Jessell. 1997. A role for the roof plate and its resident TGF-b-related proteins in neuronal patterning in the dorsal spinal cord. Cell 91: 127–138.
PubMed Link

Liem, K. F., Jr., G. Tremml, H. Roelink and T. M. Jessell. 1995. Dorsal differentiation of neural plate cells induced by BMP-mediated signals from epidermal ectoderm. Cell 82: 969–979.
PubMed Link

Linsenmayer, T. F., C. X. Cai, J. M. Millholland, K. E. Beazley and J. M. Fitch. 2005. Nuclear ferritin in corneal epithelial cells: tissue-specific nuclear transport and protection from UV-damage. Prog. Retin. Eye Res. 24:139–159.
PubMed Link

Little, J. and J. M. Elwood. 1992a. Ethnic origin and migration. In J. M. Elwood, J. Little and J. H. Elwood (eds.), Epidemiology and Control of Neural Tube Defects. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 146–167.

Little, J. and J. M. Elwood. 1992b. Seasonal variation. In J. M. Elwood, J. Little and J. H. Elwood (eds.), Epidemiology and Control of Neural Tube Defects. Oxford University Press, Oxford, pp. 195–246.

Liu, M. T., Y. H. Kuan, J. Wang, R. Hen and M. D. Gershon. 2009. 5-HT4 receptor-mediated neuroprotection and neurogenesis in the enteric nervous system of adult mice. J. Neurosci. 29: 9683–9699.
PubMed Link

Lowery, L. A. and H. Sive. 2004. Strategies of neurulation and a re-evaluation of teleost neural tube formation. Mech. Dev. 121: 1189–1197.
PubMed Link

Lowery, L. A. and H. Sive. 2005. Initial formation of zebrafish brain ventricles occurs independently of circulation and requires the nagie oko and snakehead/atp1a1a.1 gene products. Development 132: 2057–2067.
PubMed Link

Lumsden, A. 2004. Segmentation and compartition in the early avian hindbrain. Mech. Dev. 121: 1081–1088.
PubMed Link

Lumsden, A. and R. Keynes. 1989. Segmental patterns of neuronal development in the chick hindbrain. Nature 337: 424–428.
PubMed Link

Luna, B. and 9 others. 2001. Maturation of widely distributed brain function subserves cognitive development. Neuroimage 13: 786–793.
PubMed Link

Mack, J. A., S. Anand and E. V. Maytin. 2005. Proliferation and cornification during development of the mammalian epidermis. Birth Def. Res. C Embryo Today 75: 314–329.
PubMed Link

Majo, F., A. Rochat, M. Nicolas, G. A. Jaoudé and Y. Barrandon. 2008. Oligopotent stem cells are distributed throughout the mammalian ocular surface. Nature 456: 250–254.
PubMed Link

Malatesta, P., E. Hartfuss and M. Götz. 2000. Isolation of radial glial cells by fluorescent-activated cell sorting reveals a neuronal lineage. Development 127: 5253–5263.
PubMed Link

Mangale, V. S. and 11 others. 2008. Lhx2 selector activity specifies cortical identity and suppresses hippocampal organizer fate. Science 319: 304–309.
PubMed Link

Marasas, W. F. and 20 others. 2004. Fumonisins disrupt sphingolipid metabolism, folate transport, and neural tube development in embryo culture and in vivo: A potential risk factor for human neural tube defects among populations consuming fumonisin-contaminated maize. J. Nutr. 134: 711–716.
PubMed Link

Marini, N. J. and 13 others. 2011. A genetic signature of spina bifida risk from pathway-informed comprehensive gene-variant analysis. PLoS One 6(11): e28408.
PubMed Link

Martin, R. D. 1990. Primate Origins and Evolution: A Phylogenetic Reconstruction. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.

Marx, J. 2007. Evidence linking DISC1 gene to mental illness builds. Science 318: 1062–1063.
PubMed Link

Matsunami, H. and M. Takeichi. 1995. Fetal brain subdivisions defined by T- and E- cadherins expressions: Evidence for the role of cadherin activity in region-specific, cell-cell adhesion. Dev. Biol. 172: 466–478.
PubMed Link

McConnell, S. K. and C. E. Kaznowski. 1991. Cell cycle dependence of laminar determination in developing neocortex. Science 254: 282–285.
PubMed Link

McLean, C. Y. and 12 others. 2011. Human-specific loss of regulatory DNA and the evolution of human-specific traits. Nature 471: 216–219.
PubMed Link

Meier, S. and E. D. Hay. 1974. Control of corneal differentiation by extracellular materials: Collagen as a promoter and stabilizer of epithelial stroma production. Dev. Biol. 38: 249–270.
PubMed Link

Merkle, F. T., Z. Mirzadeh and A. Alvarez-Buylla. 2007. Mosaic organization of neural stem cells in the adult brain. Science 317: 381–384.
PubMed Link

Michailov, G. V. and 9 others. 2004. Axonal neuregulin-1 regulates myelin sheath thickness. Science 304: 700–703.
PubMed Link

Millar, S. E. 2002. Molecular mechanisms regulating hair follicle development. J. Invest. Dermatol. 118: 216–225.
PubMed Link

Miller, F. D. and A. S. Gauthier. 2007. Timing is everything: Making neurons versus glia in the developing cortex. Neuron 54: 357–369.
PubMed Link

Miller, S. J., R. M. Lavker and T.-T. Sun. 1993. Keratinocyte stem cells of cornea, skin, and hair follicle: Common and distinguishing features. Semin. Dev. Biol. 4: 217–240.
PubMed Link

Milunsky, A., H. Jick, S. S. Jick, C. L. Bruell, D. S. Maclaughlen, K. J. Rothman and W. Willett. 1989. Multivitamin folic acid supplementation in early pregnancy reduces the prevalence of neural tube defects. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 262: 2847–2852.
PubMed Link

Miyata T., A. Kawaguchi, H. Okano and M. Ogawa. 2001. Asymmetric inheritance of radial glial fibers by cortical neurons. Neuron 31: 727–741.
PubMed Link

Montagna, W. and P. F. Parakkal. 1974. The piliary apparatus. In W. Montagna (ed.), The Structure and Formation of Skin. Academic Press, New York, pp. 172–258.

Montagu, M. F. A. 1962. Time, morphology, and neoteny in the evolution of man. In M. F. A. Montagu (ed.) Culture and Evolution of Man. Oxford University Press, New York.

Moore, K. L. and T. V. N. Persaud. 1993. Before We Are Born: Essentials of Embryology and Birth Defects. W. B. Saunders, Philadelphia.

Morris, R. J. and C. S. Potten. 1999. Highly persistent lanbel-retaining cells in the hair follicles of mice and their fate following induction of anagen. J. Invest. Dermat. 112: 470–475.
PubMed Link

Morrow, T., M. R. Song and A. Ghosh. 2001. Sequential specification of neurons and glia by developmentally regulated extracellular factors. Development 128: 3585–3594.
PubMed Link

Mou, C., B. Jacson, P. Schneider, P. A. Overbeek and D. J. Headon. 2006. Generation of the primary hair follicle pattern. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 103: 9075–9080.
PubMed Link

Moury, J. D. and G. C. Schoenwolf. 1995. Cooperative model of epithelial shaping and bending during avian neurulation: Autonomous movements of the neural plate, autonomous movements of the epidermis, and interactions in the neural plate/epidermis transition zone. Dev. Dynam. 204: 323–337.
PubMed Link

Muhr, J., E. Andersson, M. Persson, T. M. Jessell and J. Ericson. 2001. Groucho-mediated transcriptional repression establishes progenitor cell pattern and neuronal fate in the ventral spinal cord. Cell 104: 861–873.
PubMed Link

Närhi, K., E. Järvinen, W. Birchmeier, M. M. Taketo, M. L. Mikkola and I. Thesleff. 2008. Sustained epithelial beta-catenin activity induces precocious hair development but disrupts hair follicle down-growth and hair shaft formation. Development 135: 1019–1028.
PubMed Link

Nakatsu, T., C. Uwabe and K. Shiota. 2000. Neural tube closure in humans initiates at multiple sites: Evidence from human embryos and implications for the pathogenesis of neural tube defects. Anat. Embryol. 201: 455–466.
PubMed Link

Nave, A. K. 2010. Myelination and support of axonal integrity by glia. Nature 468: 244–252.
PubMed Link

Nguyen, B. and 14 others. 2006. Cross-regulation between Notch and p63 in keratinocyte commitment to differentiation. Genes Dev. 20: 1028–1042.
PubMed Link

Nguyen, M. and H. Arnheiter. 2000. Signaling and transcriptional regulation in early mammalian eye development: A link between FGF and MITF. Development 127: 3581–3591.
PubMed Link

Nguyen, V. H., J. Trout, S. A. Connors, P. Andermann, E. Weinberg and M. C. Mullins. 2000. Dorsal and intermediate neuronal cell types of the spinal cord are established by a BMP signaling pathway. Development 127:1209–1220.
PubMed Link

Nievelstein, R. A. J., N. G. Hartwig, C. Vermeij-Keers and J. Valk. 1993. Embryonic development of the mammalian caudal neural tube. Teratology 48: 21–31.
PubMed Link

Nishimura, E. K. and 9 others. 2002. Dominant role of the niche in melanocyte stem-cell fate determination. Nature 416: 854–860.
PubMed Link

Niwa, M. and 10 others. 2013. Adolescent stress-induced epigenetic control of dopaminergic neurons via glucocorticoids. Science 339: 335–339.
PubMed Link

Noctor, S. C., A. C. Flint, T. A. Weissman, R. S. Dammerman and A. R. Kriegstein. 2001. Neurons derived from radial glial cells establish radial units in neocortex. Nature 409: 714–720.
PubMed Link

Noctor, S. C., V. Martínez-Cerdeño and A. R. Kriegstein. 2007. Contribution of intermediate progenitor cells to cortical histogenesis. Arch. Neurol. 64: 639–642.
PubMed Link

Noctor, S. C., V. Martínez-Cerdeño, L. Ivic and A. R. Kriegstein. 2004. Cortical neurons arise in symmetric and asymmetric division zones and migrate through specific phases. Nature Neurosci. 7: 136–144.
PubMed Link

O’Rahilly, R. and F. Müller. 2002. The two sites of fusion of the neural folds and the two neuropores of the human embryo. Teratology 65: 162–170.
PubMed Link

Ogino, H., H. Ochi, H. M. Reza and K. Yasuda. 2012. Transcription factors involved in lens development from the preplacodal ectoderm. Dev. Biol. 363: 333–347.
PubMed Link

Ogino, H., M. Fisher and R. M. Grainger. 2008. Convergence of a head-field selector Otx2 and Notch signaling: A mechanism for lens specification. Development 135: 249–258.
PubMed Link

Papaconstantinou, J. 1967. Molecular aspects of lens cell differentiation. Science 156: 338–346.
PubMed Link

Pasteels, J. 1937. Etudes sur la gastrulation des vertébrés méroblastiques. III. Oiseaux. IV. Conclusions générales. Arch. Biol. 48: 381–488.

Patten, B. M. 1971. Early Embryology of the Chick, 5th Ed. McGraw-Hill, New York.

Philpott, M. and R. Paus. 1998. Principles of hair follicle morphogenesis. In C.-M. Chuong (ed.), Molecular Basis of Epithelial Appendage Morphogenesis. R. G. Landes, Austin, TX, pp. 75–110.

Piao, X. and 15 others. 2004. G protein-coupled receptor-dependent development of human frontal cortex. Science 303: 2033–2036.
PubMed Link

Piatigorsky, J. 1981. Lens differentiation in vertebrates: A review of cellular and molecular features. Differentiation 19: 134–153.
PubMed Link

Placzek, M., M. Tessier-Lavigne, T. Yamada, T. Jessell and J. Dodd. 1990. Mesodermal control of neural cell identity: Floor plate induction by the notochord. Science 250: 985–988.
PubMed Link

Plikus, M. V., J. A. Mayer, D. de la Cruz, R. E. Baker, P. K. Maini, R. Maxson and C. M. Chuong. 2008. Cyclic dermal BMP signalling regulates stem cell activation during hair regeneration. Nature 451: 340–344.
PubMed Link

Pollard, K. S. and 12 others. 2006a. Forces shaping the fastest evolving regions in the human genome. PLoS Genet. 2: e168.
PubMed Link

Pollard, K. S. and 15 others. 2006b. An RNA gene expressed during cortical development evolved rapidly in humans. Nature 443: 167–172.
PubMed Link

Portmann, A. 1941. Die Tragzeiten der Primaten und die Dauer der Schwangerschaft beim Menschen: Ein Problem der vergleichen Biologie. Rev. Suisse Zool. 48: 511–518.

Prabhakar, S., J. P. Noonan, S. Pääbo and E. M. Rubin. 2006. Accelerated evolution of conserved noncoding sequences in humans. Science 314: 786.
PubMed Link

Preuss, T. M., M. Cáceres, M. C. Oldham and D. H.Geschwind. 2004. Human brain evolution: Insights from microarrays. Nature Rev. Genet. 5: 850–860.
PubMed Link

Purves, D. and J. W. Lichtman. 1985. Principles of Neural Development. Sinauer Associates, Sunderland, MA.

Pyrgaki, C., A. Liu, and L. Niswander. 2011. Grainyhead-like 2 regulates neural tube closure and adhesion molecule expression during neural fold fusion. Dev Biol. 353: 38–49.
PubMed Link

Pyrgaki, C., P. Trainor, A. K. Hadjantonakis and L. Niswander. 2010. Dynamic imaging of mammalian neural tube closure. Dev. Biol. 344: 941–947.
PubMed Link

Qian, X., Q. Shen, S. K. Goderie, W. He, A. Capela, A. A. Davis and S. Temple. 2000. Timing of CNS cell generation: A programmed sequence of neuron and glial cell production from isolated murine cortical stem cells. Neuron 28: 69–80.
PubMed Link

Quiring, R., U. Walldorf, U. Kloter and W. J. Gehring. 1994. Homology of the eyeless gene of Drosophila to the Small eye gene in mice and Aniridia in humans. Science 265: 785–789.
PubMed Link

Rakic, P. 1971. Guidance of neurons migrating to the fetal monkey neocortex. Brain Res. 33: 471–476.
PubMed Link

Rakic, P. 1972. Mode of cell migration to superficial layers of fetal monkey neocortex. J. Comp. Neurol. 145: 61–83.
PubMed Link

Rakic, P. 1974. Neurons in rhesus visual cortex: Systematic relation between time of origin and eventual disposition. Science 183: 425–427.
PubMed Link

Rakic, P. 1975. Cell migration and neuronal ectopias in the brain. In D. Bergsma (ed.), Morphogenesis and Malformations of Face and Brain. Birth Defects Original Article Series, vol. 11, no. 7. Alan R. Liss, New York, pp. 95–129.

Rakic, P. and P. S. Goldman. 1982. Development and modifiability of the cerebral cortex. Neurosci. Rev. 20: 429–611.
PubMed Link

Rakic, P. and R. L. Sidman. 1973. Organization of cerebellar cortex secondary to deficit of granule cells in weaver mutant mice. J. Comp. Neurol. 152: 133–162.
PubMed Link

Ramûn y Cajal, S. 1890. Sur l’origene et les ramifications des fibres neuveuses de la moelle embryonnaire. Anat. Anz. 5: 111–119.

Reddy, S. T. Andl, A. Bagasra, M. M. Lu, D. J. Epstein, E. E. Morrisey and S. E. Millar. 2001. Characterization of Wnt gene expression in developing and postnatal hair follicles and identification of Wnt5a as a target of Sonic hedgehog in hair follicle morphogenesis. Mech. Dev. 107: 69–82.
PubMed Link

Rendl, M., L. Polak and E. Fuchs. 2008. BMP signaling in dermal papilla cells is required for their hair follicle-inductive properties. Genes Dev. 22: 543–557.
PubMed Link

Reza, H. M., H. Nishi, K. Kataoka, Y. Takahashi and K. Yasuda. 2007. L-Maf regulates p27kip1 expression during chick lens fiber differentiation. Differentiation 75: 737–744.
PubMed Link

Rietze, R. L., H. Valcanis, G. F. Brooker, T. Thomas, A. K. Voss and P. F. Bartlett. 2001. Purification of a pluripotent neural stem cell from the adult mouse brain. Nature 412: 736–739.
PubMed Link

Rifat, Y. and 7 others. 2010. Regional neural tube closure defined by the Grainy head-like transcription factors. Dev. Biol. 345: 237–245.
PubMed Link

Roelink, H., J. A. Porter, C. Chiang, Y. Tanabe, D. T. Chang, P. A. Beachy and T. M. Jessell. 1995. Floor plate and motor neuron induction by different concentrations of amino-terminal cleavage product of Sonic hedgehog autoproteolysis. Cell 81: 445–455.
PubMed Link

Roessler, E. and 7 others. 1996. Mutations in the human sonic hedgehog gene cause holoprosencephaly. Nature Genet. 14: 357–360.
PubMed Link

Rose, S. 1998. Lifelines: Biology beyond Determinism. Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Saha, M., C. L. Spann and R. M. Grainger. 1989. Embryonic lens induction: More than meets the optic vesicle. Cell Diff. Dev. 28: 153–172.
PubMed Link

Saitsu, H., S. Yamada, C. Uwabe, M. Ishibashi and K. Shiota. 2007. Aberrant differentiation of the axially condensed tail bud mesenchyme in human embryos with lumbosacral myeloschisis. Anat. Rec. (Hoboken) 290: 251–258.
PubMed Link

Sasai, Y. 2013. Cytosystems dynamics  in self-organization of tissue architecture. Nature 493: 318–326.
PubMed Link

Sauer, F. C. 1935. Mitosis in the neural tube. J. Comp. Neurol. 62: 377–405.

Sausedo, R. A., J. L. Smith and G. C. Schoenwolf. 1997. Role of oriented cell division in shaping and bending of the neural plate. J. Comp. Neurol. 381: 473–488.
PubMed Link

Schlake, T. and S. Sick. 2007. Canonical WNT signalling controls hair follicle spacing. Cell Adh. Migr. 1: 149–151.
PubMed Link

Schoenwolf, G. C. 1984. Histological and ultrastructural studies of secondary neurulation in mouse embryos. Am. J. Anat. 169: 361–376.
PubMed Link

Schoenwolf, G. C. 1991a. Cell movements driving neurulation in avian embryos. Development 2 [Suppl.]: 157–168.
PubMed Link

Schoenwolf, G. C. 1991b. Cell movements in the epiblast during gastrulation and neurulation in avian embryos. In R. Keller et al. (eds)., Gastrulation. Plenum, New York, pp. 1–28.

Schoenwolf, G. C. and J. Delongo. 1980. Ultrastructure of secondary neurulation in the chick embryo. Amer. J. Anat. 158: 43–63.
PubMed Link

Schoenwolf, G. C. and M. E. Desmond. 1984. Descriptive studies of the occlusion and reopening of the spinal canal of the early chick embryo. Anat. Rec. 209: 251–263.
PubMed Link

Shen, Q. and 9 others. 2006. The timing of cortical neurogenesis is encoded within lineages of individual progenitor cells. Nature Neurosci. 9: 743–751.
PubMed Link

Shimokita, E., I. Kashin and Y. Takahashi. 2010. Secondary neurulation: A novel model to study tubulogenesis. Poster presentation.

Shingo, T. and 7 others. 2003. Pregnancy-stimulated neurogenesis in the adult female forebrain mediated by prolactin. Science 299: 117–120.
PubMed Link

Shu, W., H. Yang, L. Zhang, M. M. Lu and E. E. Morrisey. 2001. Characterization of a new subfamily of winged-helix/forkhead (Fox) genes that are expressed in the lung and act as transcriptional repressors. J. Biol. Chem. 276: 27488–27497.
PubMed Link

Sick, S., S. Reinker, J. Timmer and T. Schlake. 2006. WNT and DKK determine hair follicle spacing through a reaction-diffusion mechanism. Science 314: 1447–1450.
PubMed Link

Sidman, R. L., M. M. Dickie and S. H. Appel. 1964. Mutant mice (quaking and jimpy) with deficient myelination in the central nervous system. Science 144: 309–312.
PubMed Link

Smith, J. L. and G. C. Schoenwolf. 1989. Notochordal induction of cell wedging in the chick neural plate and its role in neural tube formation. J. Exp. Zool. 250: 49–62.
PubMed Link

Smith, J. L. and G. C. Schoenwolf. 1991. Further evidence of extrinsic forces in bending of the neural plate. J. Comp. Neurol. 307: 225–236.
PubMed Link

Smith, J. L. and G. C. Schoenwolf. 1997. Neurulation: Coming to closure. Trends Neurosci. 20: 510–517.
PubMed Link

Snippert, H. J. and 12 others. 2010. Lgr6 marks stem cells in the hair follicle that generate all cell lineages of the skin. Science 327: 1385–1389.
PubMed Link

Sowell, E. R., P. M. Thompson, C. J. Holmes, T. L. Jernigan and A. W. Toga. 1999. In vivo evidence for post-adolescent brain maturation in frontal and striatal regions. Nature Neurosci. 2: 859–861.
PubMed Link

Stöhr, P. 1903. Anat. Hefte 23: 1–66; quoted in A. Christiano 2004. Epithelial stem cells: Stepping out of their niche. Cell 118: 530–532.
PubMed Link

Tétreault, N., M. P. Champagne and G. Bernier. 2009. The LIM homeobox transcription factor Lhx2 is required to specify the retina field and synergistically cooperates with Pax6 for Six6 trans-activation. Dev. Biol. 327: 541–550.
PubMed Link

Takemoto, T. and 6 others. 2011. Tbx6-dependent Sox2 regulation determines neural or mesodermal fate in axial stem cells. Nature 470: 394–398.
PubMed Link

Taverna, E. and W. B. Huttner. 2010. Neural progenitor nuclei IN motion. Neuron 67: 906–914.
PubMed Link

Taylor, G., M. S. Lehrer, P. J. Jensen, T. T. Sun and R. M. Lavker. 2000. Involvement of follicular stem cells in forming not only the follicle but also the epidermis. Cell 102: 451–461.
PubMed Link

Taylor, V. J. 2011. Hippocampal stem cells: So they are multipotent!  Mol. Cell Biol. 3: 270–272.
PubMed Link

Teramitsu, I. and S. A. White. 2006. FoxP2 regulation during undirected singing in adult songbirds. J. Neuroscience 26: 7390–7294.
PubMed Link

Truong, A. B. and P. A. Khavari. 2007. Control of keratinocyte proliferation and differentiation by p63. Cell Cycle 6: 295–299.
PubMed Link

Tsai, R. J., L. M. Li and J. K. Chen. 2000. Reconstruction of damaged corneas by transplantation of autologous limbal epithelial cells. New Engl. J. Med. 343: 86–93.
PubMed Link

Turner, D. L and C. L. Cepko. 1987. A common progenitor for neurons and glia persists in rat retina late in development. Nature 328: 131-136.
PubMed Link

Turner, D. L. and C. L. Cepko. 1987. A common progenitor for neurons and glia persists in rat retina late in development. Nature 328: 131–136.
PubMed Link

Tye, K. M. and 12 others. 2013.  Dopamine neurons modulate neural encoding and expression of depression-related behaviour. Nature 493: 537–541.
PubMed Link

Tzouanacou, E., A. Wegener,  F. J. Wymeersch, V. Wilson and J. F. Nicolas. 2009. Defining the progression of lineage segregations during mammalian embryogenesis by clonal analysis. Dev. Cell 17: 365–376.
PubMed Link

Tzouanacou, E., A. Wegener, F. J. Wymeersch, V. Wilson and J. F. Nicolas. 2009. Redefining the progression of lineage segregations during mammalian embryogenesis by clonal analysis. Dev. Cell 17: 365–376.
PubMed Link

van Praag, H., A. F. Schinder, B. R. Christie, N. Toni, T. D. Palmer and F. H. Gage. 2002. Functional neurogenesis in the adult hippocampus. Nature 415: 1030–1034.
PubMed Link

van Praag, H., G. Kempermann and F. H. Gage. 1999. Running increases cell proliferation and neurogenesis in the adult mouse dentate gyrus. Nature Neurosci. 2: 266–270.
PubMed Link

van Straaten, H. W. M., J. W. M. Hekking, E. J. L. M. Wiertz-Hoessels, F. Thors and J. Drukker. 1988. Effect of the notochord on the differentiation of a floor plate area in the neural tube of the chick embryo. Anat. Embryol. 177: 317–324.
PubMed Link

Vargha-Khadem, F., K. Watkins, K. Alcock, P. Fletcher and R. Passingham. 1995. Praxic and nonverbal cognitive deficits in a large family with a genetically transmitted speech and language disorder. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 92: 930–933.
PubMed Link

Varki, A., D. H. Geschwind and E. E. Eichler. 2008. Explaining human uniqueness: Genome interactions with environment, behaviour and culture. Nature Rev. Genet. 9: 749–763.
PubMed Link

Vinicius, L. and M. M. Lahr. 2003. Morphometric heterochrony and the evolution of growth. Evolution 57: 2459–2468.
PubMed Link

Vrba, E. 1996. Climate, heterochrony, and human evolution. J. Anthropol. Res. 52: 1–28.

Wallace, V. A. 1999. Purkinje-cell-derived Sonic hedgehog regulates granule neuron precursor cell proliferation in the developing mouse cerebellum. Curr. Biol. 9: 445–448.
PubMed Link

Walsh, C. and C. L. Cepko. 1988. Clonally related cortical cells show several migration patterns. Science 241: 1342–1345.
PubMed Link

Walsh, C. and C. Reid. 1995. Cell lineage and patterns of migration in the developing cortex. Ciba Found. Symp. 193: 21–40.
PubMed Link

Wang, X., J. W. Tsai, J. H. Imai, W. N. Lian, R. B. Vallee and S. H. Shi. 2009. Asymmetric centrosome inheritance maintains neural progenitors in the neocortex. Nature 461: 947–955.
PubMed Link

Wasserman, C. R., G. M. Shaw, S. Selvin, J. B. Gould and S. L. Syme. 1998. Socioeconomic status, neighborhood social conditions, and neural tube defects. Am. J. Pub. Health 88: 1674–1680.
PubMed Link

Werth, M. and 13 others. 2010. The transcription factor grainyhead-like 2 regulates the molecular composition of the epithelial apical junctional complex. Development 137: 3835–3845.
PubMed Link

Wickelgren, I. 1999. Nurture helps mold able minds. Science 283: 1832–1834.
PubMed Link

Williams, S. E., S. Beronja, H. A. Pasolli and E. Fuchs E. 2011. Asymmetric cell divisions promote Notch-dependent epidermal differentiation. Nature 470: 353–358.
PubMed Link

Wilson, S. I. and T. Edlund. 2001. Neural induction: Toward a unifying mechanism. Nature Neurosci. 4: 1161–1168.
PubMed Link

Wilson, V., I. Olivera-Martinez and K. G. Storey. 2009. Stem cells, signals and vertebrate body axis extension. Development 136:1591–1604.
PubMed Link

Yamada, K. M., B. S. Spooner and N. K. Wessells. 1971. Ultrastructure and function of growth cones and axons of cultured nerve cells. J. Cell Biol. 49: 614–635.
PubMed Link

Yamamoto, Y., D. W. Stock and W. R. Jeffery. 2004. Hedgehog signaling controls eye degeneration in blind cavefish. Nature 431: 844–847.
PubMed Link

Yang, X.-J. 2004. Roles of cell-extrinsic growth factors in vertebrate eye pattern formation and retinogenesis. Sem. Cell Dev. Biol. 15: 91–103.
PubMed Link

Ybot-Gonzalez, P. and 6 others. 2007. Neural plate morphogenesis during mouse neurulation is regulated by antagonism of Bmp signalling. Development 134: 3203–3211.
PubMed Link

Zhang, C. L., Y. Zou, W. He, F. H. Gage and R. M. Evans. 2008. A role for adult TLX-positive neural stem cells in learning and behaviour. Nature 451: 1004–1007.
PubMed Link

Zhang, Y. and 14 others. 2009. Reciprocal requirements for EDA/EDAR/NF-kB and Wnt/b-catenin signaling pathways in hair follicle induction. Dev. Cell 17: 49–61.
PubMed Link

Zhou, P. and 9 others. 2007. Polarized signaling endosomes coordinate BDNF-induced chemotaxis of cerebellar precursors. Neuron 55: 53–68.
PubMed Link

Zuber, M. E. 2010. Mechanisms regulating eye field specification and early eye formation. Curr. Topics Dev. Biol. 93: 48–53.
PubMed Link

Zuber, M. E., G. Gestri, A. S. Viczian, G. Barsacchi and W. A. Harris. 2003. Specification of the vertebrate eye by a network of eye field transcription factors. Development 130: 5155–5167.
PubMed Link

 

Citation for the BioWeb Conference Links
Barresi, M. J., and Lee, K. 2005–2010. Biology Web Conferences. Smith College, Northampton, MA.

© All the material on this website is protected by copyright. It may not be reproduced in any form without permission from the copyright holder.
Home Link