PART II: SPECIFICATION Introducing Cell Commitment and Early Embryonic Development

Where possible, references have been linked to PubMed, the National Center for Biotechnology Information’s online database of journal article citations. Citations that do not include links to PubMed are either referring to papers that are too old to be included in PubMed, or to books, which are not listed on PubMed.

Ben-Zvi, D. and N. Barkai. 2010. Scaling of morphogen gradients by an expansion-repression integral feedback control. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 107: 6924–6929.
PubMed Link

Ben-Zvi, D., G. Pyrowolakis, N. Barkai and B. Z. Shilo. 2011. Expansion-repression mechanism for scaling the Dpp activation gradient in Drosophila wing imaginal discs. Curr. Biol. 21: 1391–1396. 
PubMed Link

Davidson, E. H. 1991. Spatial mechanisms of gene regulation in metazoan embryos. Development 113: 1–26.
PubMed Link

Driesch, H. 1892. The potency of the first two cleavage cells in echinoderm development: Experimental production of partial and double formations. In B. H. Willier and J. M. Oppenheimer (eds.), Foundations of Experimental Embryology. Hafner, New York 1974.

Driesch, H. 1893. Zur Verlagerung der Blastomeren des Echinideneies. Anat. Anz. 8: 348–357.

Dyson, S. and J. B. Gurdon. 1998. The interpretation of position in a morphogen gradient as revealed by occupancy of activin receptors. Cell 93: 557–568.
PubMed Link

Green, J. B. and J. C. Smith. 1990. Graded changes in dose of a Xenopus activin A homologue elicit stepwise transitions in embryonic cell fate. Nature 47: 391–394.
PubMed Link

Gurdon, J. B., P. Harger, A. Mitchell and P. Lemaire. 1994. Activin signalling and response to a morphogen gradient. Nature 371: 487–492.
PubMed Link

Hörstadius, S. 1939. The mechanics of sea urchin development studied by operative methods. Biol. Rev. 14: 132–179.

Hamburger, V. 1997. Wilhelm Roux: Visionary with a blind spot. J. Hist. Biol. 30: 229–238.
PubMed Link

Harrison, R. G. 1933. Some difficulties of the determination problem. Am. Nat. 67: 306–321.

Hertwig, O. 1894. Zeit- und Streitfragen der Biologie I. Präformation oder Epigenese? Grundzüge einer Entwicklungstheorie der Organismen. Gustav Fischer, Jena.

Huxley, J. and G. R. de Beer. 1934. The Elements of Experimental Embryology. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

Marcus, N. H. 1979. Developmental aberrations associated with twinning in laboratory-reared sea urchins. Dev. Biol. 70: 274–277.
PubMed Link

Nüsslein-Volhard, C., H. G. Fröhnhofer and R. Lehmann. 1987. Determination of anterioposterior polarity in Drosophila. Science 238: 1675–1681.
PubMed Link

Nishida, H. and K. Sawada. 2001. Macho-1 encodes a localized mRNA in ascidian eggs that specifies muscle fate during embryogenesis. Nature 409: 724–729.
PubMed Link

Reverberi, G. and A. Minganti. 1946. Fenomeni di evocazione nello sviluppo dell’uovo di Ascidie. Risultati dell’indagine spermentale sull’ouvo di Ascidiella aspersa e di Ascidia malaca allo stadio di 8 blastomeri. Pubbl. Staz. Zool. Napoli 20: 199–253. (Quoted in G. Reverberi,. Experimental Embryology of Marine and Fresh-water Invertebrates. North-Holland, Amsterdam 1971, p. 537.)

Rogers, K. W. and A. F. Schier. 2011. Morphogen gradients: From generation to interpretation. Annu. Rev. Cell. Dev. Biol. 27: 377–407.
PubMed Link

Slack, J. M. W. 1991. From Egg to Embryo: Regional Specification in Early Development. Cambridge University Press, New York.

Weismann, A. 1892. Essays on Heredity and Kindred Biological Problems. Translated by E. B. Poulton, S. Schoenland and A. E. Shipley. Clarendon, Oxford.

Weismann, A. 1893. The Germ-Plasm: A Theory of Heredity. Translated by W. Newton Parker and H. Ronnfeld. Walter Scott Ltd., London.

Whittaker, J. R. 1973. Segregation during ascidian embryogenesis of egg cytoplasmic information for tissue-specific enzyme development. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 70: 2096–2100.
PubMed Link

Whittaker, J. R. 1982. Muscle lineage cytoplasm can change the developmental expression in epidermal lineage cells of ascidian embryos. Dev. Biol. 93: 463–470.
PubMed Link

Wilson, E. B. 1894. The mosaic theory of development. Biol. Lect. Woods Hole 2: 1–14.

Wilson, E. B. 1896. The Cell in Development and Inheritance. Macmillan, New York.

Wilson, E. B. 1904. Experimental studies on germinal location. J. Exp. Zool. 1: 1–72.

 

Citation for the BioWeb Conference Links
Barresi, M. J., and Lee, K. 2005–2010. Biology Web Conferences. Smith College, Northampton, MA.

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